The absence of sperm in semen is called azoospermia. To diagnose azoospermia, which occurs in 15% of men with infertility problems, at least two semen samples are centrifuged and examined. Then, although rare, sperm can be found and a microinjection performed with these sperm.
What are the different types of azoospermia?
Azoospermia is seen in two different ways. The first is occlusive azoospermia and the second is non-obstructive azoospermia. Even if there are sperm cells in the testicles due to an obstruction in azoospermia, sperm cannot come out due to obstructions in the testicles or ducts. A congenital lack of spermatic ducts or infections cause this. Azoospermia, which is not related to obstruction, is the condition where there are no or few sperm in the semen. The reason can be hormonal or genetic disorders, congenital testicular elevation, as well as cancer treatments and radiation exposure.
How is azoospermia treated?
In azoospermia, sperm are collected with a needle without cutting the testicular skin with PESA-TESA, TESE procedures. Recently, azoospermia treatment has been performed with micro-TESE surgery. In the procedure performed under general anaesthesia, tissue samples are taken from the areas where sperm are found and live sperm cells are selected under the microscope. If no viable sperm can be found in tissue samples, the results are sent to pathology and the micro-TESE operation is repeated according to these results.
What are the causes of azoospermia?
Decreased sperm production due to advancing age.
Poor quality food, obesity, malnutrition
Stress, psychological problems, occupational and family factors can affect azoospermia.
After azoospermia is confirmed by spermiogram, urology and chromosome evaluation are done. Structural and numerical chromosomal problems may be observed in azoosperms. Therefore, chromosomal evaluation is required.
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