endometriosis - chocolate cyst

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What is endometriosis (chocolate cyst)?

The proliferation of endometrial cells lining the inside of the uterus by settling outside the uterus is called endometriosis, also called a chocolate cyst. The endometrial tissue that is in the uterus and thickens after menstruation, allowing the baby to hold on, and which is expelled from the body during each menstruation, attaches to regions other than the uterus and causes bleeding, and this brown blood collects and causes chocolate cyst endometriosis. The sites where the tissue often adheres are the ovaries, fallopian tubes, pelvic cavity, outer periphery of the uterus, bowel and urinary bladder.

What are the symptoms of endometriosis (chocolate cyst)?

70% of endometriosis patients experience pain, but some women have no symptoms at all. Sometimes endometriosis can be diagnosed by a gynaecological examination and sometimes by an ultrasound examination. However, an ultrasound examination is required for a correct diagnosis. If there is a possibility of a tumour cyst, surgery should be performed.Chocolate cysts, although rare, may develop cancer in the cyst wall or problems such as a rupture of the cyst wall may occur as a result of excessive growth.It is possible to measure some tumour markers in the blood. Ca125 and HE4 are the most common. Laparoscopic surgery is recommended when patients diagnosed with endometriosis and chocolate cyst experience severe pain and this affects their quality of life.

How is endometriosis treated?

Endometriosis that does not have a permanent cure has a high probability of recurring regardless of the treatment applied. The reason for treatment with medication or surgery is to relieve severe pain and to become pregnant by eliminating infertility. The doctor decides on the treatment to be used, taking into account the severity of the condition, the problems it causes and other characteristics of the patient.

How is endometriosis (chocolate cyst) surgery performed?

Chocolate cyst surgery is performed laparoscopically (closed) for results and patient comfort. The operation should remove chocolate cysts without damaging the ovaries, open adhesions and remove endometriosis problems. It is important to observe patients who do not have any problems, but who are found to have chocolate cysts on examination, for a while. If the Ca125 level is elevated and the cyst is enlarged, surgery should be considered. In addition, the patient's ovarian capacity and reserve should be checked before surgery. If it is too low and no baby has been born yet, surgery should be avoided.

Can endometriosis patients become pregnant?

For pregnancy to occur, the ovaries need to be fertilised by a sperm and attach to the uterine wall. In endometriosis, diseased tissue that spreads outside the uterus damages the fallopian tubes and ovaries and causes infertility. This prevents pregnancy.

Endometriosis IVF treatment

Those suffering from endometriosis can become pregnant through vaccination or in vitro fertilisation treatment through the use of medication or surgery. If the disease is not treated, the fertility rate can vary between 2% and 3%.  In vitro fertilisation of women at an early age increases the probability of becoming pregnant by 50-60%. The treatment to be used varies from patient to patient, and the factors the patient has also influence fertility.
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